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A. One of the main reasons why social loafing is considered to be a real problem in the organization is because workers minimize their contributions as they feel that the others do not notice their work and all the efforts they make. As a result, we can see the lessening of desire and decreasing of the productivity. Social loafing leads to the negative attitude of the individual to the work, as he supposes it to be unrecognized. In team environment personnel lack the incentive to complete their full potential, as there is no interior or external appraisal for their contributions and work. Social loafing is an invasive phenomenon, but it is can hardly appear when the members of the team feel that the tasks or the team itself is significant. In other case, it can appear when the worker feels under appreciated in their team or group where they work. Social loafing appears in a group situation when the existence of others leads to relaxation as an alternative to stimulation and stimulation. As a result, the duties are not fulfilled in a proper way and company is not able to achieve its main tasks. There are a lot of ways to combat social loafing and the main one is motivation. The worker of a working team should well be motivated in order to have desire to work and achieve better results. For instance, if a group is completing their tasks for some type of rewards, such as money or a high grade, in this case, members of the team will try to work harder in order to be praised. For example, the team working in the mobile phones shop can be motivated to work by promising to receive bonuses at the end of month or get the salary based on the amount of bargains they performed within the month. Social loafing can be observed practically in every company, but the solving of the problem depends upon the managerial and their ability to organize work and motivate the personnel.

B. The task of every manager, especially those who are working in a team is to find the necessary ways to influence workers and make them work more effectively. Training is very significant for the team work, as it leads not only to the improvement of work, but to the development of team culture and shaping of the staff behavior. Trainings are very useful from the point of view of conflicts avoiding and formation of respectful and reliable relationships within the team. A manager has to find out what training possibilities are obtainable for the team to ensure the job is performed correctly and proficiently. In this situation, the manager is able to make educated solutions when an employee requires training. Manager should be practical and examine the business requirements and skills of the employees to decide what kind of training the personnel needs and in what particular sphere of business. Moreover, the personnel training can help to shape the behavior of the team and make it more purposeful and interested in the work. Trainings help to build up and support the team spirit and teach all members to work in one team, help each other and solve difficult problems. There are a lot of arguments stating that the efficiency of the public sector as usual does not depend greatly on some economic and financial parameters, but depend upon larger expand on the accessibility of competent skilled personnel. It sounds very reasonable, as only trained and well-qualified personnel can perform work efficiently enough and make correct decisions that can lead to a successful performance of the sector. Trainings help to build up and support the team spirit and teach all members to work in one team, help each other and solve difficult problems. When the training is over, the managers should compare the results of the work and inform the team about them, thus motivating them to improve their results more

C. From the point of view of manager’s productivity, the process of selection within the working team is very important, as it helps greatly to form the behavior of the personnel, making it more disciplined and hardworking. Development of every company leads to the necessity of changing the staff, recruitment and, of course, selection, as a result. For instance, when company reduces its activity, it consequently leads to the necessity for the staff reduction. The members of the company realize that someone should be fired. As a result, they start working more hard and effectively, so shaping of behavior is based on the fear to loose job. As usual, the process of selection is carries out within the company while reduction of the personnel, because of the necessity to free vacancies.

Managerial theories

Managing is a real science that requires using of different techniques. Trainings help to build up and support the team spirit and teach all members to work in one team, help each other and solve difficult problems. When the training is over, the managers should compare the results of the work and inform the team about them, thus motivating them to improve their results more. In this case, McClelland’s Theory of Needs can be applied. According to this theory, personnel needs affiliation, power and appreciation. Everything can be achieved with the help of training of the personnel. Training can give the employees more power and knowledge, helping to succeed in the work and them be appreciated. Moreover, trainings help the team to work together harmoniously. They tend to be conventional to the norms of their working group. The harmony, in its turn, makes the process of work easier and more effective. Speaking about the practical application, we may say about its relation to the Asian culture, for example. As the psychologists say, Asian people are known to be rather aggressive when dealing with other people and making the same job with them, that is why achieving harmony is he team very important for them.

According to the Equity Theory, the most highly motivated staff is that who gets his rewards are equivalent to his contributions. When the staff feels that it is rewarded equally to the strengths he put to his work, then he is treated fairly. Having such feeling is very important for good and effective performance. If all the employee work hard and get good revenue from the work, there will be no need for selection and choosing the best ones, as everybody will work effectively. Personnel requires knowledge, appraisal and of course relationship. This theory is actively applied during the process of the employees training that gives employees the necessary power and knowledge, leading as a result to good and successful performance of their work. As we know from the history, African people were always struggling for the equity in all spheres social and cultural life, for the possibility to enjoy the same rights with white people. That is why being treated equally is very important for the representatives of this culture.

The next theory under discussion is Maslow’s theory of needs. According to this theory, people are dependent upon four basic needs. Maslow supposed that that these basic needs are comparable with instincts and play a main role in motivating behavior of people in every sphere of life. The main deficiency needs are physiological, security, social, and esteem needs. Maslow supposes that these needs arise due to deficiency. Satisfying these needs is very significant in order to keep away from disagreeable feelings or consequences. The basic needs are divided into four levels. The first level comprises basic psychological needs, such as necessity of food and sleep. The second level includes security needs. On the third level we place social needs, such as love and affection. Needs of esteem and self-actualizing belong to the highest levels of needs, because of their importance for people who want their work to be noticed. Speaking about this theory applied in a real life and to particular culture, Americans belong to the group of people, who are very anxious upon their security and good conditions of work. Needs of esteem and appreciation are also very significant for the representatives of American culture, as they are in habit of being treated well and highly appreciated. This is a kind of stimulation and motivation for them. Generally speaking, the theories can be applied and discussed in relation to every society, culture and nation.

Managerial grid

The successful activity of any organization directly depends on the ability to control and manage the talents of the staff that can be helpful some innovative ideas, perspectives and consideration for the improvement of the working process. The problems and challenges that can appear in the working environment may be turned into strategic assets of the organization and used for he company’s prosperity. Due to different talents and different cultural backgrounds, diverse genders, ages and completely different lifestyles, the company can have more business opportunities, work more quickly and creatively and achieve the desirable goals as quickly as possible. If the environment of the organization does not maintain diversity broadly, there is a high risk to lose talent to competitors.

Usage of a certain type of managerial strategy depends greatly upon the culture of the country. American mentality I based on the principle that everybody should be appraised for a job he performs and absence of such appraisal leads to the decrease in the quality of work. If we consider African culture, those people are not in habit of appraisals, taking into account some historical backgrounds and facts about working conditions in African organizations. The effectiveness of work depends greatly upon people who are performing it, their characters and mentality. It goes from this, that American or German employees are regarded as the hardworking and persistent.

Success and outstanding performance of any company parallels to the well-organized and effectual approach used by management and then demonstrates a picture on how talented and outstanding the leaders the company has. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed a model of behavioral leadership that helps to identify five different styles of leadership that combines two main approaches, one for people and another for production. It is named the managerial grid .The model extremely promotes development in the performance of the company as it pays particular attention to the leadership method best suited for the management, concerning working with people and improving production process. Due to this grid, managers are taught what methods should be used and what deserves special attention and power. Indeed, it helped the leaders to find the direction to forward their methods and ways of managing. This grid does not provide the concept of ideal manager, but helps managers and teach them how to apply their knowledge and skill in order to achieve company’s prosperity and mutual benefits.