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Part 1

This is a randomized experimental design study because the key aspect to the whole study is having a random sampling of the study subject. In the overall study it is found out that one variable directly affects another variable, which is seen to be of great significance in the overall study results. In this case, the results of the study show that high doses of antioxidant vitamins don’t reduce the risk of diabetes in women at high risk of heart disease. This means that those women with high risk of having heart disease do not have a resultant positive effect on high doses of antioxidants vitamins, in relevance to reducing the risk of diabetes.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the level of impact of antioxidant vitamins taken by diabetic women inversely propositional to the level of the risk of heart disease. This case shows that antioxidant vitamins are positively hypothesized causal factors for diabetes in women with high risk of heart disease.

Part 2

The correlation claim of an on campus Critical Thinking instructor is that the performance of his students in exams and being critical thinkers is directly correlated with attendance in class. The causal claim in this case is what should be motivating students to attend class more often; the need for them to be achievers and critical thinkers. This correlation claim may not be indicating that the causal relationship of the statement is correct even though the correlation claim is believed to be true. It may be based on assumption and there could be other factors making students to move in such direction, and not just about being successful in exams and being critical thinkers alone. Therefore, the correlation claim fails to fully state factors behind attending classes and achieving in exams.

Part 3

It has been determined that only one- third of American married men have wanted the divorce, while women reported actively seeking the divorce to be 60% of the same time. This means that a large number of women are seeking divorce than men in America. Therefore, most of the American men are afraid of what comes after having a divorce and it takes them long to re start their lives after breaking up with their female counter part.

In other survey, in which thousands of divorced North Americans were interviewed, it has been shown that one year after divorce, 60% of women are reported being happier than males, who are at 50%. This proved right when the same survey is carried out after 10 years of divorce, of which the number of women saying that it was right to do so increases to 80%, and only one-third for men. This means that women get hold of themselves faster than men when divorced.

A casual claim is that slow financial status of women is always as a result of negative effects they get from divorce, and this is a factor that makes them be different from men in terms of financial well-being. The evidence given in the two surveys do not support this claim at all, in fact they prove it wrong, since women have proved to be strong and better off after the divorce, and most of them do not regret taking such step.